Repository of Research and Investigative Information

Repository of Research and Investigative Information

Bam University of Medical Sciences

Satureja khuzistanica Jamzad essential oil and pure carvacrol attenuate TBI-induced inflammation and apoptosis via NF-κB and caspase-3 regulation in the male rat brain

(2023) Satureja khuzistanica Jamzad essential oil and pure carvacrol attenuate TBI-induced inflammation and apoptosis via NF-κB and caspase-3 regulation in the male rat brain. Scientific Reports. ISSN 20452322 (ISSN)

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Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes progressive dysfunction that induces biochemical and metabolic changes that lead to cell death. Nevertheless, there is no definitive FDA-approved therapy for TBI treatment. Our previous immunohistochemical results indicated that the cost-effective natural Iranian medicine, Satureja khuzistanica Jamzad essential oil (SKEO), which consists of 94.16 carvacrol (CAR), has beneficial effects such as reducing neuronal death and inflammatory markers, as well as activating astrocytes and improving neurological outcomes. However, the molecular mechanisms of these neuroprotective effects have not yet been elucidated. This study investigated the possible mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties of SKEO and CAR after TBI induction. Eighty-four male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups: Sham, TBI, TBI + Vehicle, TBI + CAR (100 and 200 mg/kg), and TBI + SKEO (200 mg/kg) groups. After establishing the “Marmarou” weight drop model, diffuse TBI was induced in the rat brain. Thirty minutes after TBI induction, SKEO & CAR were intraperitoneally injected. One day after TBI, injured rats exhibited significant brain edema, neurobehavioral dysfunctions, and neuronal apoptosis. Western blot results revealed upregulation of the levels of cleaved caspase-3, NFκB p65, and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, which was attenuated by CAR and SKEO (200 mg/kg). Furthermore, the ELISA results showed that CAR treatment markedly prevents the overproduction of the brain pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6. Moreover, the neuron-specific enolase (NSE) immunohistochemistry results revealed the protective effect of CAR and SKEO on post-TBI neuronal death. The current study revealed that the possible neuroprotective mechanisms of SKEO and CAR might be related to (at least in part) modulating NF-κB regulated inflammation and caspase-3 protein expression. It also suggested that CAR exerts more potent protective effects than SKEO against TBI. Nevertheless, the administration of SKEO and CAR may express a novel therapeutic approach to ameliorate TBI-related secondary phase neuropathological outcomes. © 2023, The Author(s).

Item Type: Article
Keywords: carvacrol caspase 3 essential oil immunoglobulin enhancer binding protein animal apoptosis brain chemistry encephalitis inflammation Iran male metabolism pathology rat savory traumatic brain injury Wistar rat Animals Brain Injuries, Traumatic NF-kappa B Oils, Volatile Rats Rats, Wistar Satureja
Journal or Publication Title: Scientific Reports
Journal Index: Scopus
Volume: 13
Number: 1
Identification Number:
ISSN: 20452322 (ISSN)
Depositing User: مهندس مهدی شریفی

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